Friday, May 27, 2016
Mineral oil or liquid petroleum is a by product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline and other petroleum based products from crude oil. It is a transparent, colorless oil composed mainly of alkanes (typically 15 to 40 carbons) and cyclic paraffins, related to petroleum jelly (also known as "white petrolatum"). It has a density of around 0.8 g/cm3. Mineral oil is a substance of relatively low value, and it is produced in very large quantities. Mineral oil is available in light and heavy grades, and can often be found in drug stores.In the late 1800s, the term "mineral oil" or "rock oil" was first used to describe the petroleum hydrocarbons and associated products that were produced from wells that tapped underground reservoirs. The term differentiated petroleum hydrocarbons produced from underground sources from other common oil sources at the time, such as palm oil or whale oil. In today's petroleum exploration and production (E business, the phrase "mineral oil" is most often used in legal documents to define and encompass all of the liquid hydrocarbon and gaseous products produced from wells drilled into underground petroleum bearing reservoirs.There are three basic classes of refined mineral oils:paraffinic oils, based on n alkanesnaphthenic oils, LED Table Lamps based on cycloalkanesaromatic oils, based on aromatic hydrocarbons (not to be confused with essential oils)Medicine " external usesMineral oil with added fragrance is marketed as baby oil in the US, UK and Canada. While baby oil is primarily marketed as a generic skin ointment, other applications exist in common use. It is often used on infant "diaper rashes" to ease the inflammation. Similarly, it may alleviate mild eczema, particularly when the use of corticosteroid creams is not desirable. Mineral or baby oil can also be employed in small quantities (2"3 drops daily) to clean inside ears. Over a couple of weeks, the mineral oil softens dried or hardened earwax so that a gentle flush of water can remove the debris. In the case of a damaged or perforated eardrum, however, mineral oil should not be used, as oil in the middle ear can lead to ear infections.Mineral oil is used as a suspending and levigating agent in sulphur based ointments.Medicine " internal usesMineral oil is taken orally as a lubricative laxative, and is often prescribed to ease the pain of bowel movements for those who suffer from hemorrhoids and constipation. In Europe the use of mineral oil as laxative is considered obsolete mainly due to its potentially harmful effects on the lungs if accidentally aspirated. Furthermore, the oil may be absorbed to a small percentage into internal tissue and cause adverse reactions to the body. In higher therapeutic dosages loss of bowel control and/or dripping from the rectum has been reported causing temporary stool incontinence. Mineral oil temporarily coats the intestines and prevents the uptake of certain essential vitamins and nutrients. In the poultry industry, plain mineral oil can also be swabbed onto the feet of chickens infected with scaly mites on the shank, toes, and webs. Mineral oil suffocates these tiny parasites. LED Table Lamps It is a lightweight inexpensive oil that is odorless and tasteless. It can be used on eyelashes to prevent brittleness and breaking and, in cold cream, is also used to remove creme makeup and temporary tattoos. One of the common concerns regarding the use of mineral oil is its presence on several lists of comedogenic substances. Some examples are in transformers where it is known as transformer oil, and in high voltage switchgear where mineral oil as an insulator and as a coolant to disperse switching arcs. The dielectric constant of mineral oil ranges from 2.3 at 50 C to 2.3 at 200 C.Electric space heaters sometimes use it as a heat transfer oil. Because it is non compressible, mineral oil is used as a hydraulic fluid in hydraulic machinery and vehicles. Mineral Oil is also used as a lubricant. Light mineral oil is also used in textile industries and used as a jute batching oil. Alkali metals like lithium are often submerged in mineral oil for storage or transportation.Mineral oil is also often used as a coating on metal tools and weapons, knives in particular, as a way to inhibit oxidation. The Japanese Nihonto swords, for example, are traditionally coated in Choji oil which consists of 99% mineral oil and 1% oil of cloves. The use of oil of cloves is sometimes explained as a means of differentiating sword oil from cooking oil to prevent accidental ingestion, but may also be purely aesthetic.Mineral oil can be used as a leather conditioner as well, though most shoe polishes use naphtha, lanolin, turpentine and Carnauba wax instead.It can also be used as a wood preservative. Rubbing a small amount of mineral oil into a wooden kitchen item periodically will prevent absorption of food odors and ease cleaning, as well as maintain the integrity of the wood, which is otherwise subjected to repeated wetting and drying in the course of use. The oil fills small surface cracks that may otherwise harbor bacteria.It is occasionally used in the food industry, particularly for candy. In this application, it is typically used for the glossy effect it produces, and to prevent the candy pieces from adhering to each other. It has been discouraged for use in children's foods, though it is still found in many candies, including Swedish Fish.It can also be used on cooking utensils, such as wooden cutting boards, or to grease cookware and bakeware to prevent food from sticking.